# How To Do A Vertical Analysis Of A Balance Sheet

August 26, 2019May 10th, 2022No Comments

An income statement tallies income and expenses; a balance sheet, on the other hand, records assets, liabilities, and equity. Vertical statement analysis does not determine ratios, so the liquidity of the entity cannot be determined using vertical statement analysis. Common-size analysis enables us to compare companies on equal ground, and as this analysis shows, Coca-Cola is outperforming PepsiCo in terms of income statement information. However, as you will learn in this chapter, there are many other measures to consider before concluding that Coca-Cola is winning the financial performance battle. As you can see from Figure 13.6 “Common-Size Balance Sheet Analysis for “, the composition of assets, liabilities, and shareholders’ equity accounts changed from 2009 to 2010. Both express results as a percentageVertical analysis percentage expresses results as a percentage of total assets at the time the analysis was done.

• From this statement, an overview of the returns of various sources after deducting all expenses will be obtained.
• Similarly, an investor might decide to sell an investment to buy into a company that’s meeting or exceeding its goals.
• This would mean that the ratio of years 1, 2, and 3 to year one would be 100%, 97%, and 94%, respectively.
• For example, although interest expense from one year to the next may have increased 100 percent, this might not need further investigation; because the dollar amount of increase is only \$1,000.
• With the three tools of financial statement analysis, one can better understand the financial picture of a company, and therefore will be able to make better decisions for the operation.

It also helps depict the changes say, the wealth created by the organization by looking at the value-added statement or a drop in the profits. But, it can’t really answer “Why.” Like, in the above example we know cost is a major reason for the drop in the profits.

## Example Of Vertical Analysis On An Income Statement With Revenue

ABC Company’s income statement and vertical analysis demonstrate the value of using common-sized financial statements to better understand the composition of a financial statement. It also shows how a vertical analysis can be very effective in understanding key trends over time.

Normally, if you were comparing retail or manufacturing companies, you would be more interested in profits from operations, since that is the core business function. This analysis might lead you back to more a horizontal analysis of Schneider and Jonick in order to determine why so much income is being generated from the sale of investments. The following compares the performance of two companies using a vertical analysis on their income statements for 2019. As business owners, we are so busy with the day-to-day operations of running a business that we may forget to take a look at our business as a whole and ignore any company financial statement analysis. This would be done for each item listed on the income statement and balance sheet and would allow the business to see how each item changed as compared to other items.

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## Benefits Of Vertical Analysis:

Although you use total assets as the basis of vertical analysis of the balance sheet, you can also change the denominator based on where you are on the balance sheet. You use total liabilities to compare all liabilities and total equity to compare all equity accounts. Comparing these numbers to historical figures can help you spot sudden shifts. When you conduct vertical analysis, you analyze each line on a financial statement as a percentage of another line. On an income statement you conduct vertical analysis by converting each line into a percentage of gross revenue. On a balance sheet you would typically state each line as a percentage of total assets. The balance sheet provides you and your co-owners, lenders and management with essential information about your company’s financial position.

Here’s an example of an income statement from a fictional company for the year that ended on September 28, 2019. E.g. HGY Company’s income statement for the year ended 2016 is shown below along with the financial results for the year 2015.

Financial Statements often contain current data and the data of a previous period. This way, the reader of the financial statement can compare to see where there was change, either up or down. If both companies have similar levels of net sales and total assets, it is reasonable to assume that the more profitable company is the better performer. In ABC Company’s case, we can clearly see that costs are a big reason profits are declining despite the company’s robust sales growth. What we don’t know, and what we can’t know from the vertical analysis, is why that is happening.

This income statement shows that the company brought in a total of \$4.358 billion through sales, and it cost approximately \$2.738 billion to achieve those sales, for a gross profit of \$1.619 billion. Horizontal analysis makes financial data and reporting consistent per generally accepted accounting principles . It improves the review of a company’s consistency over time, as well as its growth compared to competitors. Accountants, investors, and business owners regularly review income statements to understand how well a business is doing in relation to its expected performance, and use that understanding to adjust their actions.

On the other hand, vertical analysis is used in the comparison of a financial item as a percentage of the base figure, commonly total liabilities and assets. In terms of vertical analysis on income statements, all of the different items are represented as a proportion of the total sales. If the interest expenses of a certain company were \$200 USD and its total sales amounted to \$4,000 USD, then the interest would be represented as 5, because it totals 5 percent of total sales. It is easy to understand as it reflects the percentage of every line item as compared to the base item in financial statements. The vertical analysis makes it easier to compare the financial statements of one company with another.

Each item is represented as a percentage of a single larger item in the vertical analysis method of analyzing financial statements. Vertical analysis is used in the income statements to determine the correlation of income, expenses, and net profit based on the turnover figure. Vertical analysis of the income statement is calculated by dividing the value of the line item by the value of the base item. Financial statements should be prepared in a standard vertical format in accordance with accounting standards. The main use of vertical analysis is to calculate the financial ratios which in turn are key metrics in evaluating company performance. Once the ratios are calculated, they can be easily compared with ratios in similar companies for benchmarking purpose. So, we can say that vertical analysis is a good tool to know what is happening in the financial statements.

Likewise, a high percentage rate indicates the need to improve the use of Assets. Vertical analysis is particularly useful when used as part of a ratio trend analysis to identify relative changes over a period of time. In contrast, horizontal analysis looks at line items by how they have changed balance sheet vertical analysis over a period of time. When a company releases this type of financial statement, it will often additionally include columns that compare line items to those reported in a previous period for comparison. Vertical analysis identifies each line item in a financial statement with a base figure.

To increase the effectiveness of vertical analysis, multiple year’s statements or reports can be compared, and comparative analysis of statements can be done. This analysis makes it easier to compare the financial statements of one company with another and across the companies as one can see the relative proportion of accounts. It is also useful in comparing a company’s financial statement to the average trends in the industry. It would be ineffective to use actual dollar amounts while analyzing entire industries. Common-size percentages solve such a problem and facilitate industry comparison. The financial positon reflects that the result of financial position and the financial status of enterprise at a specific date. Also, it will reports the difference in their totals and financial entity’s assets, liabilities .

## How Are Items In Common

Common-size financial statements often incorporate comparative financial statements that include columns comparing each line item to a previously reported period. Owing to the lack of consistency in the ratio of the elements, it does not provide a quality analysis of the financial statements. It does not help take a firm decision owing to a lack of standard percentage or ratio regarding the components in the balance sheet and income statement. The proportion of fixed assets and current assets to the total assets is 13.60%. The proportion of fixed assets and current assets to the total assets is 35.88%. The proportion of fixed assets and current assets to the total assets is 37.47%. The proportion of fixed assets and current assets to the total assets is 25.06%.

• By doing this, we’ll build a new income statement that shows each account as a percentage of the sales for that year.
• In fact, some sources of industry data present the information exclusively in a common-size format, and most of the accounting software available today has been engineered to facilitate this type of analysis.
• The vertical analysis also shows that in years one and two, the company’s product cost 30% and 29% of sales, respectively, to produce.
• Because this analysis tells these business owners where they stand in their financial environment.
• Gain in-demand industry knowledge and hands-on practice that will help you stand out from the competition and become a world-class financial analyst.
• Vertical analysis is a type of ratio analysis that presents each line on the financial statements as a percentage of another item.

Also, the method makes it easier to compare the performance of one company against another and also across industries. Horizontal analysis is used to examine changes in different balance sheet items over a period of time. Vertical analysis can also be used for comparing the financial statement of a company with its previous year’s financial statements.

## The Formula For Calculating Vertical Analysis

Nony August 27, 2011 Well now, I am not a math wizard nor am I that good in accounting, but based on this article I think that I could learn how to do a vertical analysis. On the comparative income statement, the amount of each line item is divided by the sales number, which is called the “base”. Vertical analysis expresses each amount on a financial statement as a percentage of another amount. The amount shown in the vertical analysis will be of 33% since the \$ 100,000 current asset corresponds to 33% of the total asset of \$ 300,000 in the same period. Monthly, quarterly, or yearly comparative evolution are the most common in this analysis. Make company performance appraisal easy using this free spreadsheet example. On this balance sheet spreadsheet, you’ll see the horizontal and vertical analysis excel model.

A vertical analysis of financial statements often reports the percentage of each line item to a total amount. Vertical analysis can be used to compare and identify trends within a company from year to year or between different companies . Using percentages to perform these financial analytics and comparisons makes the data you gather more meaningful and easier to understand. Vertical analysis uses percentages in its analysis, restating either income statement or balance sheet items as a percentage. For example, if you’re using vertical analysis with a balance sheet to analyze your assets, your base amount would be your total assets, with each individual item given a percentage in the next column.

Garcia received her Master of Science in accountancy from San Diego State University. Structured Query Language is a specialized programming language designed for interacting with a database…. Gain in-demand industry knowledge and hands-on practice that will help you stand out from the competition and become a world-class financial analyst. To create common-size measures, which enable them to compare and contrast amounts of different magnitudes in a very efficient manner. Regression analysis is a set of statistical methods used to estimate relationships between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables.

## The Three Major Financial Statements: How They’re Interconnected

These include white papers, government data, original reporting, and interviews with industry experts. We also reference original research from other reputable publishers where appropriate. You can learn more about the standards we follow in producing accurate, unbiased content in oureditorial policy. Vertical analysis is used in order to gain a picture of whether performance metrics are improving or deteriorating.

For best results, perform vertical analysis on a handful of company balance sheets and calculate the average to establish a baseline balance for each account. Compare your company results to the baseline and note any significant differences. In addition to industry baselines, compare your current common-size balance statement with previous years and note significant growth or decline in any accounts. If your company number is within 10% of the expected number, it is typically considered within range. When you compare these percentages to prior year numbers, you can see trends and develop a clearer understanding of the financial direction your company is headed in. If investment in assets is rising but owner’s equity is shrinking, you are either taking too much in owner’s withdrawals or your profitability is dropping. The latter could mean you are not using your assets wisely and need to make operational changes.

As you can see in Figure 13.5 “Common-Size Income Statement Analysis for “, Coca-Cola’s gross margin as a percent of net sales decreased from 2009 to 2010 (64.2 percent versus 63.9 percent). Income before taxes increased significantly from 28.6 percent in 2009 to 40.4 percent in 2010, again mainly due to a one-time gain of \$4,978,000,000 in 2010. This caused net income to increase as well, from 22.0 percent in 2009 to 33.6 percent in 2010. In the expense category, cost of goods sold as a percent of net sales increased, as did other operating expenses, interest expense, and income tax expense. Selling and administrative expenses increased from 36.7 percent in 2009 to 37.5 percent in 2010. Vertical analysis includes the presentation of each item of a financial statement as a percentage of the base item. A column is added in the financial statement, which shows the relative size of each item.

Vertical statement analysis helps users of the financial statements to understand the changes of every line item in the balance sheet, income statement, and cash flow statement. Vertical analysis is widely used to compare the financial statement with prior period statements. Vertical financial statement analysis is also used to compare the financial statements with another company in the same industry. Vertical analysis is an accounting https://online-accounting.net/ tool that enables proportional analysis of financial statements. While performing a vertical analysis, every line item on a financial statement is entered as a percentage of another item. For example, on an income statement, every line item is stated in terms of the percentage of gross sales. Similarly, on a balance sheet, every entry is made not in terms of absolute currency but as a percentage of the total assets.

This is because one can see the relative proportions of the account balances. Vertical analysis is used within a financial statement for a single reporting period. The vertical analysis makes it easier to compare previous periods for time series analysis. Vertical analysis helps the accountant to ascertain the relative proportions of the balances of each account. For example, year 2008’s current assets percentage of 48.3% is computed by dividing the current assets amount of \$550,000 with the base item of total assets of \$1,139,500. Similarly, the above analysis shows the relative size of each item of the asset as a percentage of total assets and each item of liability section is presented as a percentage of total liabilities and equity.

## Using Datarails, A Budgeting And Forecasting Solution

On a balance sheet this might mean showing a percentage of either total assets, liabilities, or equity. Common-size analysis converts each line of financial statement data to an easily comparable amount measured as a percent. Income statement items are stated as a percent of net sales and balance sheet items are stated as a percent of total assets (or total liabilities and shareholders’ equity). Common-size analysis allows for the evaluation of information from one period to the next within a company and between competing companies. In vertical analysis, each item in a financial statement is expressed as a percentage of some base item. When analyzing a balance sheet vertically, all accounts are listed as a percentage of total assets. Vertical analysis, also known as common-size analysis, is particularly useful for comparing information among companies of different sizes.

This helps in representing every cash outflow or inflow relative to its total cash inflows. Vertical statement analysis is a financial statements analysis tool that is used to establish a correlation between the base item and every line item in the financial statements. In vertical statement analysis, each line item in financial statements is reflected as a percentage of the base item. In the income statement, each line item is represented as a percentage of the gross turnover because gross turnover is considered as a base figure in income statement analysis. In the balance sheet, each line item is reflected as a percentage of total assets or liabilities.